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    全球變暖威脅鱈魚數量 但升溫1.5度鱈魚還能應付

    kira86 于2019-03-01發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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    鱈魚是氣候變化的受害物種之一,研究發現只要全球變暖的溫度在在1.5攝氏度以內,鱈魚還能應付,而一旦海水升溫超過3-4度,鱈魚產量將減半。
      小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

    鱈魚.jpg
    Cod Could Cope with Constrained Climate Change

    鱈魚可以應對一定的氣候變化

    Polar bears and coral reefs are obvious victims of climate change. But a warming world will also challenge many other animals. For example, cod. The fish play a critical role in marine ecosystems and human economies. Climate change could devastate Atlantic and polar cod.

    北極熊和珊瑚礁都顯然是氣候變化的受害者。但這個日漸變暖的世界也將對許多其它動物造成威脅,比如,鱈魚。魚類在海洋生態系統和人類經濟中發揮著至關重要的作用。氣候變化可能會對大西洋造成嚴重破壞,給極地鱈魚帶來毀滅性的一擊。

    A team of scientists wanted to find out how rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification might affect these fish populations.

    一組科學家想弄清楚海水溫度上升和海洋酸化可能會對這些魚類的數量造成怎樣的影響。

    We went out with our research vessel into the Barents Sea, and caught Atlantic cod and polar cod, and brought them back alive into a research facility in Northern Norway. Flemming Dahlke, a marine biologist at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany.

    “我們乘坐考察船前往巴倫支海,捕獲了大西洋鱈魚和極地鱈魚,并將它們活著待會挪威北部的一個研究機構。”德國阿爾弗雷德·魏格納研究所的海洋生物學家弗萊明·達爾克表示到。

    And in this facility, we raised the eggs and larvae under different temperature and ocean acidification, mimicking the conditions expected for the next decades to come.

    “在這個設施中,我們在不同的溫度和海洋酸化條件下飼養這些魚卵和魚苗,環境模擬了未來幾十年可能會出現的海水條件,。”

    The researchers placed the eggs and larvae in various carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as three different temperature scenarios: one, the "business as usual" scenario, where humans continue to emit greenhouse gases as current rates and ocean waters increase 3 to 4 degrees Celsius. They also tested an intermediate scenario of a 2-degree Celsius rise, and a "best-case" scenario, where water temperatures rise only 1 degree. They then recorded egg survival rates and larval development.

    研究人員將這些魚卵和魚苗放置于不同的二氧化碳濃度以及三種不同的水溫模式下:第一種是模式是“一切如常”模式,即人類繼續排放溫室氣體,當前海水溫度上升3到4攝氏度。他們還測試了“中等模式”,即海水溫度上升2攝氏度,以及“最佳模式”,即海水溫度只上升1攝氏度。然后,他們記錄了魚卵(在三種模式下)的存活率以及魚苗的發育情況。

    The results were pretty clear. We found that with ocean acidification, the eggs become more sensitive to temperature extremes. So this means that their thermal tolerance range narrows. And that we found for both species. And we also found that they use more energy to regulate against the stress of temperature and ocean acidification.

    結果非常清楚。我們發現,隨著海洋酸化,這些卵對極端溫度變得更加敏感,這意味著它們高溫耐受性變小了。我們發現這兩個物種都是如此。我們還發現它們使用更多能量來調節溫度和海洋酸化所帶來的壓力。

    The study is in the journal Science Advances.

    這項研究發表在《科學進展》雜志上。

    And when we used these data and combined them with the climate projections, we find that with the worst-case scenario there will be a decrease in egg survival chances of about 50 percent in many of the important spawning areas of those species.

    “當我們利用這些數據并將其與氣候預測結合起來時,我們發現在最壞的情況下(第一種測試模式),這些物種的重要產卵區的魚卵存活率將下降50%。”

    Although these populations might be able to adapt by shifting their spawning grounds northward.

    盡管這些物種群可以通過將產卵地向北遷移來適應這一變化。

    The question is if the species will find also suitable feeding conditions in those alternative spawning areas. So it could be that the temperature is right, but they won't find enough food up in the north.

    “但問題是,這些物種群是否也會在這些替代的產卵去找到合適的喂養條件。所以可能出現的問題是:溫度合適,但它們在北方找不到足夠的食物。”

    Big changes in cod populations will likely have ripple effects: cod are food for many other animals, like birds and seals. And countries like Norway depend on the income that cod fisheries haul in. But the new research also offers a bit of good news.

    鱈魚數量發生巨大變化可能會產生連鎖反應:因為鱈魚是許多其它動物的食物,比如鳥類和海豹。像挪威這樣的國家依賴于鱈魚漁業的收入。但新的研究也帶來了一些好消息。

    On the positive side, we find that in the scenario where we successfully limit global warming to 1.5 degrees, both species would be able to successfully reproduce in those areas where they spawn currently.

    “好的一面是,我們通過第二種模式發現,只要我們能成功地將全球變暖的溫度控制在1.5攝氏度以內,這兩個物種將能在它們目前產卵的地區成功產卵。”

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