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    外語學習者的福音:研究稱睡眠期間也能學習新語言

    kira86 于2019-03-01發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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    一項新的研究發現在深度睡眠期間也能學習新語言。目前僅測試了在睡眠過程中通過聲音進行簡單的學習是可能的,發雜的語言學習方面尚未得到證實。
      小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

    睡覺.jpg
    Can Language Learning Happen During Sleep?

    睡眠期間是否可以進行語言學習?

    A new study suggests some language learning can take place during sleep.

    一項新的研究表明睡眠期間也能學習語言。

    Researchers from Switzerland's University of Bern say they discovered people were able to learn new language words during deep levels of sleep. Results of the study recently appeared in the publication Current Biology.

    瑞士伯爾尼大學的研究人員表示,他們發現人們在深度睡眠期間也能學習新語言。該研究結果最近發表在《當代生物學》雜志上。

    Sleeping hours are generally considered unproductive time. But several studies have suggested some learning activity can happen. Studies involving mice provided evidence that sleep learning is possible in the brain of mammals.

    睡眠時間通常被認為是非生產時間,但是一些研究表明睡覺期間也能進行學習活動。對老鼠的研究為此提供了證據,證明睡眠學習在哺乳動物的大腦中是有可能的。

    Other human studies, the Swiss researchers said, found that simple learning through sounds may be possible during sleep. But they added that "complex verbal learning" has not yet been demonstrated.

    瑞士研究人員表示,其它的人類研究發現,在睡眠過程中通過聲音進行簡單的學習是可能的。但是他們補充說,復雜的語言學習方面尚未得到證實。

    Much of the earlier research found that memories made when people were awake were reinforced and strengthened during sleep. This supported the idea that information learned while awake is replayed and deeply embedded in the sleeping brain.

    許多早期研究發現,人們在清醒時生成的記憶在睡眠期間得到了鞏固加強。這也證明了,清醒時獲得的信息在睡眠期間被回放并深深植入到大腦中。

    The researchers theorized that, if replay during sleep improves the storage of information that is learned while awake, the processing and storage of new information should also be possible during sleep.

    研究人員推測,如果在睡眠期間回放可以提高在清醒時學習到的信息的存儲,那么在睡眠期間應該也可以處理和儲存新的信息。

    The research group was led by Katharina Henke, a professor at the University of Bern and founder of the school's Center for Cognition, Learning and Memory. The researchers carried out experiments on a group of young German-speaking men and women.

    該研究小組由伯爾尼大學教授以及該校認知、學習和記憶中心創始人凱瑟琳娜·亨克(Katharina Henke)領導。研究人員對一組說德語的青年進行了實驗。

    The experiments centered on periods of deep sleep called "up-states." They identified these slow-wave peaks as the best moments for sleep-learning.

    該實驗集中在深度睡眠期間,也就是所謂的“上升狀態”(注:在上升狀態中,大腦中的神經元會有短暫的高頻放電)期間。他們認為這些慢波峰值點是睡眠學習的最佳時刻。

    During normal sleep, human brain cells are commonly active for a short period of time before they enter a state of brief inactivity, the researchers said. The two states are continuously changing.

    研究人員表示,在正常睡眠期間,人類腦細胞在進入短暫不活躍狀態之前,通常會處于短時間的活躍狀態。這兩種狀態不斷變化。

    The researchers observed individuals in a controlled environment during brief periods of sleep. They recorded brain activity as pairs of words were played for the study subjects. One word in the pair was a real German word. The other was a made-up foreign word.

    研究人員觀察了在可控環境中處于短暫睡眠期間的實驗個體。他們給研究對象播放了成組的單詞,同時記錄了大腦活動。單詞組中其中一個是真正的德語單詞,另一個是編造的單詞。

    For later identification purposes, the German words chosen were things clearly larger or smaller than a shoebox.

    為了隨后的識別目的,被選中的這些德語單詞都是明顯比鞋盒大或者小的物體。

    Each word pair was played four times, with the order of the words changed each time. The researchers said the word pairs were played at a rhythm that is similar to actual brain activity during deep sleep.

    每組單詞播放四次,單詞播放順序每次都有所變化。研究人員表示,這些單詞組的播放節奏跟深度睡眠期間的實際大腦活動相似。

    The goal was to create a lasting memory link between the false word and the German word that individuals could identify when awake.

    目的是在這些假單詞和德語單詞之間建立一種持久的記憶聯系,讓實驗個體在清醒時能夠識別出來。

    When the subjects woke, they were presented with the false language words - both by sight and sound. They were then asked to guess whether the false word played during sleep represented an object smaller or larger than a shoebox.

    當實驗對象清醒時,他們同時通過視覺和聽覺接觸到了這些虛假的單詞。然后要求他們猜測在睡眠期間播放的這些假單詞代表比鞋盒更大還是更小的物體。

    During this part of the experiment, some of the subjects had their brain activity recorded by magnetic imaging technology. This was meant to measure brain activity when the subjects were giving their answers to the questions.

    在這部分實驗中,一些受試者的大腦活動被通過核磁共振成像技術記錄了下來。這是為了測量受試者在回答這些問題時的大腦活動。

    Results of the study found that a majority of subjects gave more correct answers about the sleep-learned words than would be expected if they had only guessed at random.

    研究結果發現,大多數受試者對于回答在睡眠中學習的單詞的正確率高于隨機猜測的情況。

    The researchers said they measured increased signals affecting a part of the brain known as the hippocampus. This brain structure is very important for building relational memory during non-sleep periods. The researchers said memory was best for word pairs presented during slow-wave peaks during sleep.

    研究人員表示,他們測量到影響大腦海馬體部分的信號不斷加大。海馬體這種大腦結構對于在非睡眠期間建立關系記憶非常重要。研究人員表示,單詞組記憶最佳點出現在睡眠期間的慢波峰值點。

    The study suggests that memory formation in sleep appears to be caused by the same brain structures that support vocabulary learning while awake.

    這項研究表明,睡眠中記憶的形成似乎是由清醒期間大腦中支持學習詞匯的相同結構所引起的

    The researchers say more studies are needed to support their findings. However, the experiments do provide new evidence that memories can be formed and vocabulary learning can take place in both conscious and unconscious states.

    研究人員稱還需要進行更多研究來支持他們的研究結果。然而,這些實驗確實提供了新的證據,表明在有意識和無意識狀態下,都可以形成記憶并進行詞匯學習。

    I'm Bryan Lynn.

    我是布萊恩·琳恩。

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